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Citing & Referencing: Home

MLA 8

NEW: MLA 8
The Modern Language Association released the new MLA 8 handbook.

Definitions

Here are some of the better known citing formats and the fields that usually use them. Most teachers at ASP decided to use the MLA format.
 

  • MLA (The Modern Language Association):
    literature, arts, linguistics, history and other humanities

     
  • APA (The American Psychology Association):
    psychology, economics, politics and other social sciences.

     
  • Turabian (Chicago):Designed for college students to use with all subjects. Based on the Chicago Manuel of Style (below).
     
  • Chicago Manual of Style: Used in the "real world" for books, magazines, newspapers, and other non-scholarly publications.

And there are others as well:
AMA (American Medical Association), OSCOLA (Oxford University Standard For Citation of Legal Authorities), MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association), Vancouver...

Paraphrasing
It is writing in your own words and own style information you found in other sources. Moving or changing a few words around is not paraphrasing.

TIP: Say out loud what you just read to yourself and jot down notes in point form to avoid using the author's exact words. 

 

Citation or In-text citation or parenthetical citation
It is a way to make a reference in short form in the body of your text. For each citation found in your essay there must be a corresponding full reference at the end of your paper (works cited list).

Reference
A reference indicates everything about the source of the information you paraphrased and cited in your text: Author, title, publishing information, format.

Work Cited Document
A list of all the references that you cited in your essay. It is in alphabetical order by first word, regardless of the type of resource.

Bibliography
A list of sources your used to learn about your topic, but not necessarily limited to the ones cited in your essay.

Annotated Bibliography (or annotated works cited)
A list of references with short descriptive and critical comments for each source.

Academic dishonesty or misconduct
Academic dishonesty includes any kind of cheating.

Plagiarism
Plagiarism occurs when you do not cite the source of your information. It looks like you're the author of the information you're presenting in your paper.   

Collusion
Collusion refers to supporting another student's malpractice. Letting someone copy your work is an example of collusion.

Malpractice
In the eye of the IBO it is practicing collusion or plagiarism.

Duplication
Submitting the same work for different assessments.

 

Intellectual Property: Ownnership of the rights that result from the creation of a work.

Copyright
: A document that protects the author of an intellectual work.

Public Domain
: A work is in the public domain when the copyright (intellectual property rights) has expired.

Copyleft
: A method of allowing someone's own work (often a computer program) to be used without permission and requiring that any modified version be provided free as well.

Creative Commons
: A licencing method that allows creators to publish their work under more flexible rules than the regular copyright method.

CREATIVE COMMONS

https://creativecommons.org/about/downloads

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Resources

GREAT TUTORIAL @ PURDUE OWL - CLICK HERE

EXPLANATION AND EXAMPLES OF MLA 8 FORMAT

 

We have a school subscription to EasyBib that allows you to save all your work, write essays, etc. within the program.

HOW TO SEARCH FOR IMAGES YOU CAN USE

Google: Do an image search > In "Search Tools" select "Usage Rights" > Select the appropriate licence

Yahoo: Go to Yahoo Images > Search for an image > Scroll down the left menu to Usage rights (droits d'utilisation) > Select "Labeled for Reuse" (libre de droits)

Bing: In the US, Bing has a menu called "Licence" on the images results page. So far, I haven't seen it!  Anyone?

Sites for Creative Commons licenced and free pictures 

. Creative Commons content search

. Pixabay

Compfight

FlickCC

morgueFile

(thanks to GlobalChica for the links)

YOU QUOTE IT, YOU NOTE IT!
(Take this fun test from Acadia University)

 

CASE STUDIES
(And this one from York University)

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Plagiarism

WHY DO WE NEED TO CITE? 

1. To give credit to the authors whose ideas you used.
2. To avoid plagiarism.
3. To indicate that you did your literature review.
4. To allow you to return to the original sources.
5. To allow your readers to further their reading.
6. To show off your scholarship.

WHAT AND WHEN DO YOU CITE? 

Your own words (paraphrasing): Requires citation and full reference.

Use of direct quotes (exact same words): Requires quotation marks, citation and full reference.

Common knowledge: Does not require any citation nor reference.

When in doubt, cite!

WHY DO PEOPLE PLAGIARIZE?

Either people decide to plagiarize (and hope not to get caught) or they plagiarize for lack of awareness. Unfortunately, ignorance isn't going to help you.

INTENTIONAL

“I had no time to do the assignment properly.”
“It’s so easy to cut and paste.”
“I didn’t like the assignment (or the teacher).”
“I found a great essay on the internet on that exact topic. So, why not? It was too tempting.”
Parental pressure to do well.
Academic pressure to achieve.
Peer pressure to help someone.


NEGLIGENCE / LACK OF AWARENESS

“I found it on the internet so I thought it was public and okay to use.”
“I handed in a project that I had already submitted in another class. I’m the author, no?“
“I forgot to put the citation between quotation marks.”
“I forgot where I found the information so I couldn’t reference it properly.”
“The book I used is in the public domain (no copyright issue) so it never occurred to me that I had to include it in my Works Cited page.”
“I made sure I moved a few sentences around from the original text and added a few words of my own.”
“In my culture it’s okay and even expected to use texts from other authors without referencing. It’s a sign of respect.”
"It's just a picture and I found it online. Can that reallly be plagiarism?"

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Intro

Citing and referencing properly is a sign of a good scholarship.
This LibGuide is meant to provide answers to a wide range of questions.

Most teachers at ASP ask students to use MLA, 7th Edition.